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This is a page for any random stuff that is relatively interesting that I come up with.

Terraforming Guide

Nivenian program for translating the Maker's Shadow (python3)

Weapons range[]

Here are some calculators to help calculate effective weapons ranges.

Variables used:

  • R = Range
  • V = Projectile velocity relative to target
  • a = Projectile acceleration capabilities
  • A = Target acceleration capabilities
  • d = Projectile delta-V
  • D = Target delta-V
  • L = Target length in shortest dimension

Also, make sure to equip your guidance systems with really good batteries if V + d > D.

Unguided[]

R = V * sqrt(2 * L / A)

Guided[]

V + d < D[]

A < a[]

R = A * V / d

A > a[]

Projectile ALWAYS misses.

V + d > D[]

Projectile ALWAYS hits.

Examples[]

Minimum Standards of energy, population, and surface area for the Kardashev Scale[]

Note: Following these guidelines can add realism to your fiction.

Maximum reasonable energy generation per person: 100 GW (This will mostly be in the form of reflected or absorbed light) for spacefaring societies with access to aluminum foil, 30.1 MW (10x the energy output of one worker in the US energy industry in 2019) for planetary societies.

Minimum energy to run a non-impoverished society per person: 50 kW (5x minimum possible to account for other needs)

Minimum energy to run an impoverished society per person: 10 kW (1% hydroponic farming efficiency at converting energy to food)

Area of civilization: 240 W/m^2 to 480 W/m^2, depending on temperature, for normal planetlike conditions. Potentially 1 MW/m^2 for an Ecumenopolis with active cooling.

It should be noted that civilizations are roughly three to ten times more energy-intensive on Ecumenopoli, due to the need for inefficient heat pumps for waste heat removal, and the second law of thermodynamics. However, if growing food is done off-world, even only partially, the energy requirements drop off sharply, but so does the lighting level inside the buildings as well.

Civilization minimum technology requirements: Exactly what it sounds like.

K0.75[]

Energy Generation: 31.62 TW

Minimum population: 317 if in space, 1.050 Mn on planets

Maximum population (non-impoverished society): 632.4 Mn (if using hydroponics)

Maximum population (impoverished society): 3.162 Bn (if using hydroponics)

Minimum area of civilization:

Climate Energy per square kilometer Area of Civilization
Cold 240 MW 131,750 km^2 (Similar to the State of New York)
Medium 340 MW 93,000 km^2 (Similar to Maine)
Hot 480 MW 65,875 km^2 (Similar to West Virginia)
Cooling system (380K hot side) 875 MW 36,137 km^2 (Similar to Maryland)
Cooling system (700K hot side) 12.5 GW 2,530 km^2 (Similar to Rhode Island)
Cooling system (1200K hot side) 110 GW 287.5 km^2 (Similar to Boston)

Civilization minimum technology requirements: Agriculture, Mining, Metallurgy, Thermodynamics, Basic Turbines. Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion power sources and space infrastructure optional but make this achievement much easier.

K1.00[]

Energy Generation: 10 PW

Minimum population: 100,000 if in space, 332.2 Mn on planets

Maximum population (non-impoverished society): 200 Bn (if using hydroponics)

Maximum population (impoverished society): 1 Tn (if using hydroponics)

Minimum area of civilization:

Climate Energy per square kilometer Area of Civilization
Cold 240 MW 41.67 Mn km^2 (Similar to the combined Americas)
Medium 340 MW 29.41 Mn km^2 (Similar to Africa)
Hot 480 MW 20.83 Mn km^2 (Similar to South America)
Cooling system (380K hot side) 875 MW 11.43 Mn km^2 (Similar to the United States)
Cooling system (700K hot side) 12.5 GW 800,000 km^2 (Similar to Venezuela)
Cooling system (1200K hot side) 110 GW 90,909 km^2 (Similar to Maine)

Civilization minimum technology requirements: In addition to the technologies listed in the previous section, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion energy sources, and hydroponics.

This is pretty much the highest possible rating for a modern country that really likes energy in the next two decades - it would have to be a large one, though.

K1.25[]

Energy Generation: 3.162 EW

Minimum population: 31.62 Mn if in space, 105.0 Bn on planets

Maximum population (non-impoverished society): 63.24 Tn (if using hydroponics)

Maximum population (impoverished society): 316.2 Tn (if using hydroponics)

Minimum area of civilization:

Climate Energy per square kilometer Area of Civilization
Cold 240 MW 13.175 Bn km^2 (25.83 x Earth's Area)
Medium 340 MW 9.300 Bn km^2 (18.23 x Earth's Area)
Hot 480 MW 6.588 Bn km^2 (12.91 x Earth's Area)
Cooling system (380K hot side) 875 MW 3.614 Bn km^2 (7.085 x Earth's Area)
Cooling system (700K hot side) 12.5 GW 253.0 Mn km^2 (1.698 x Earth's Land Area)
Cooling system (1200K hot side) 110 GW 28.75 Mn km^2 (Similar to Africa)

Civilization minimum technology requirements: In addition to the technologies listed in the previous section, interplanetary travel, active support structures, asteroid mining, and O'Neill cylinders. Terraforming and space elevators greatly help.

This is pretty much the highest possible rating for an urban, but still normal planet - it would have to be a large one, though.

K1.50[]

Energy Generation: 1 ZW

Minimum population: 10 Bn if in space, 33.22 Tn on planets

Maximum population (non-impoverished society): 20 Qdn (if using hydroponics)

Maximum population (impoverished society): 100 Qdn (if using hydroponics)

Minimum area of civilization:

Climate Energy per square kilometer Area of Civilization
Cold 240 MW 4.167 Tn km^2 (8,169 x Earth's Area)
Medium 340 MW 2.941 Tn km^2 (5,766 x Earth's Area)
Hot 480 MW 2.083 Tn km^2 (4,080 x Earth's Area)
Cooling system (380K hot side) 875 MW 1.143 Tn km^2 (2,251 x Earth's Area)
Cooling system (700K hot side) 12.5 GW 80.00 Bn km^2 (158.8 x Earth's Area)
Cooling system (1200K hot side) 110 GW 9.091 Bn km^2 (17.82 x Earth's Area)

Civilization minimum technology requirements: In addition to the technologies listed in the previous section, pretty much nothing. At this point, no new technology is required to just keep adding to the number of rotating habitats. Recycling everything would be useful, though.

This is pretty much the highest possible rating for an ecumenopolis planet - it would have to be a large one, though.

K1.75[]

Energy Generation: 316.2 ZW

Minimum population: 3.162 Tn if in space, 10.50 Qdn on planets

Maximum population (non-impoverished society): 6.324 Qin (if using hydroponics)

Maximum population (impoverished society): 31.62 Qin (if using hydroponics)

Minimum area of civilization:

Climate Energy per square kilometer Area of Civilization
Cold 240 MW 1.318 Qdn km^2 (2.583 Mn x Earth's Area)
Medium 340 MW 930.0 Tn km^2 (1.823 Mn x Earth's Area)
Hot 480 MW 658.8 Tn km^2 (1.291 Mn x Earth's Area)
Cooling system (380K hot side) 875 MW 361.4 Tn km^2 (708,527 x Earth's Area)
Cooling system (700K hot side) 12.5 GW 25.30 Tn km^2 (49,601 x Earth's Area)
Cooling system (1200K hot side) 110 GW 2.875 Tn km^2 (5,637 x Earth's Area)

Civilization minimum technology requirements: In addition to the technologies listed in the previous section, pretty much nothing. At this point, no new technology is required to just keep adding to the number of rotating habitats.

This is pretty much the highest possible rating for a ringworld - it would have to be a large one, though.

This energy output is equivalent to an M6V star - a moderately small star, and an average red dwarf.

K2.00[]

Energy Generation: 100 YW

Minimum population: 1 Qdn if in space, 3.322 Qin on planets

Maximum population (non-impoverished society): 2 Sxn (if using hydroponics)

Maximum population (impoverished society): 10 Sxn (if using hydroponics)

Minimum area of civilization:

Climate Energy per square kilometer Area of Civilization
Cold 240 MW 416.7 Qdn km^2 (816.9 Mn x Earth's Area)
Medium 340 MW 294.1 Qdn km^2 (576.6 Mn x Earth's Area)
Hot 480 MW 208.3 Qdn km^2 (408.0 Mn x Earth's Area)
Cooling system (380K hot side) 875 MW 114.3 Qdn km^2 (225.1 Mn x Earth's Area)
Cooling system (700K hot side) 12.5 GW 8.000 Qdn km^2 (15.88 Mn x Earth's Area)
Cooling system (1200K hot side) 110 GW 909.1 Tn km^2 (1.782 Mn x Earth's Area)

Civilization minimum technology requirements: In addition to the technologies listed in the previous section, it depends on the civilization's home star. If the civilization's home star is larger than K3V, then no extra technology is required. If not, at least fusion rocket-level interstellar travel is required.

This energy output is equivalent to an M6V star - a moderately large star, and a bright orange dwarf.

K2.25[]

Energy Generation: 31,623 YW

Minimum population: 316.2 Qdn if in space, 1.050 Sxn on planets

Maximum population (non-impoverished society): 632.4 Sxn (if using hydroponics)

Maximum population (impoverished society): 3.162 Spn (if using hydroponics)

Minimum area of civilization:

Climate Energy per square kilometer Area of Civilization
Cold 240 MW 131.8 Qin km^2 (258.3 Bn x Earth's Area)
Medium 340 MW 93.00 Qin km^2 (182.3 Bn x Earth's Area)
Hot 480 MW 658.8 Qin km^2 (129.1 Bn x Earth's Area)
Cooling system (380K hot side) 875 MW 361.4 Qin km^2 (70.85 Bn x Earth's Area)
Cooling system (700K hot side) 12.5 GW 25.30 Qin km^2 (4.960 Bn x Earth's Area)
Cooling system (1200K hot side) 110 GW 2.875 Qin km^2 (563.7 Mn x Earth's Area)

Civilization minimum technology requirements: In addition to the technologies listed in the previous section, photon rocket-level propulsion technology may be required, possibly even FTL, but this depends on location.

This is pretty much the lowest possible rating for anyone wanting to build a birch planet, even around the smallest of supermassive black holes.

This is also pretty much the highest possible rating for even a galaxy-spanning empire, if they only colonize planets.

This energy output is equivalent to a B9V star - an extremely large star, and a smaller blue giant.

K2.50[]

Energy Generation: 10 Mn YW

Minimum population: 100 Qin if in space, 332.2 Sxn on planets (It would take the planets of an entire galactic supercluster to add up to a civilization this large)

Maximum population (non-impoverished society): 200 Spn (if using hydroponics)

Maximum population (impoverished society): 1 Ocn (if using hydroponics)

Minimum area of civilization:

Climate Energy per square kilometer Area of Civilization
Cold 240 MW 41.67 Sxn km^2 (81.69 Tn x Earth's Area)
Medium 340 MW 29.41 Sxn km^2 (57.66 Tn x Earth's Area)
Hot 480 MW 20.83 Sxn km^2 (40.80 Tn x Earth's Area)
Cooling system (380K hot side) 875 MW 11.43 Sxn km^2 (22.51 Tn x Earth's Area)
Cooling system (700K hot side) 12.5 GW 800.0 Qin km^2 (1.588 Tn x Earth's Area)
Cooling system (1200K hot side) 110 GW 90.91 Qin km^2 (178.2 Bn x Earth's Area)

Civilization minimum technology requirements: In addition to the technologies listed in the previous section, FTL is required for all non-birch planet inhabitants of this tier of the Kardeshev scale to maintain a cohesive civilization.

This is more or less the rating given to birch worlds surrounding average galactic cores (like that of Andromeda)

This energy output is equivalent to an O9.8V star - a ludicrously large star, about one in five million.

K2.75[]

Energy Generation: 3.162 Bn YW

Minimum population: 31.62 Sxn if in space, 105.0 Spn on planets (It would take all the planets within a billion light-years to add up to a civilization this large)

Maximum population (non-impoverished society): 63.24 Ocn (if using hydroponics)

Maximum population (impoverished society): 316.2 Ocn (if using hydroponics)

Minimum area of civilization:

Climate Energy per square kilometer Area of Civilization
Cold 240 MW 13.18 Spn km^2 (25.83 Qdn x Earth's Area)
Medium 340 MW 9.300 Spn km^2 (18.23 Qdn x Earth's Area)
Hot 480 MW 65.88 Spn km^2 (12.91 Qdn x Earth's Area)
Cooling system (380K hot side) 875 MW 36.14 Spn km^2 (7.085 Qdn x Earth's Area)
Cooling system (700K hot side) 12.5 GW 2.530 Spn km^2 (496.0 Tn x Earth's Area)
Cooling system (1200K hot side) 110 GW 287.5 Sxn km^2 (56.37 Tn x Earth's Area)

Civilization minimum technology requirements: In addition to the technologies listed in the previous section, faster FTL is nessesary for non-birch-world civilizations to remain cohesive.

This is pretty much the highest possible rating for birch planets around the largest of supermassive black holes.

This energy output is equivalent to the very brightest of Wolf-Rayet stars - true anomalies only formed by the merger of several smaller stars, and occurring less than once per galaxy, sometimes even not existing across an entire cluster.

General Information
Nivenian History after Dekemurios 32, 20 NE
Nivenia Space Core Systems (within 3.2 light-years)
Nivenia Space Rouge Planets
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