A simple, deconfined wormhole in interstellar space.
Wormholes are type of unusual spacetime topology. They occur as a result of curvature in dimensions higher than the three dimensions directly visible to most biological life. This has the effect of changing the topology of what is otherwise an apparently flat spacetime. Analogous to folding the opposite ends of a flat sheet of paper to meet, spacetime itself can be curved in the fifth, sixth, and seventh dimensions to form structures called membranes or "branes". This can allow points which are not contiguous in three-dimensional space to meet at points where branes intersect themselves or other branes. The implication of this is that, by making use of the curved topology of higher dimensions, matter and energy can transit a wormhole from a point in spacetime to another, more distant point in spacetime faster than light could transit such a distance directly through "flat" spacetime. This has the effect of rendering otherwise vast and impassable distances readily accessible by non-godlike civilizations without violating special relativity.
Formation and Evolution Edit
Wormholes occur in nature across the known universe. Very few naturally occurring wormholes are stable, and most unstable wormholes are rendered as such by the influence of gravity on the branes they transit between. If wormholes collide, or reach a critical density and resonance of throughput energy, the exotic matter - or matter with negative mass - maintaining their structure can annihilate or decay. This almost always results in the wormhole degenerating into a black hole.
Wormholes likely evolved from interactions between particles of negative mass and spacetime itself in the very early primordial universe. At the instance of cosmic inflation, the very low density of exotic matter was already entangled with itself in the brief time that it was at a somewhat uniform density before being spread out across vast distances of space. However, this explanation only accounts for the existence of simple wormholes that connect two points in three-dimensional space. It does not account for the fact that there are definite examples of much more complex wormholes that must have an alternative origin.
The existence of wormholes in higher dimensions means that gravity - or an analogous force or curvature that is observed as "gravity-like" when observed in three dimensions - acts more strongly on higher dimensions. This, consequently means that the negative mass within wormholes acts correspondingly strongly on these massive branes, with a force equal and opposite to normal "gravity". The curvature of space at the horizon of the wormholes mimics the effect of normal mass on the wormhole, resulting in the spherical shape and the containment of the exotic matter within the envelope of the wormhole. This gravitational envelope means that wormholes act the same as other massive bodies on an astronomical scale, but are acted upon by an apparently lower force of gravity than a similarly dense and massive object when observed from the reference frame of their host or a third point in spacetime. This tendency means that the terminus of a wormhole acts like any other massive body and gravitate into orbits around more massive objects. For this reason, the vast majority of wormholes known to exist are found in low orbits over black holes and neutron stars. The extreme gravitational and energetic intensity of these phenomena renders most wormholes effectively inaccessible to Type I or II civilizations.There are also a very small number of wormholes with particularly large envelopes which have considerably less apparent mass in accordance with the square-cube law and are thus less bound to be acted upon strongly by gravity wells. The majority of these "deconfined wormholes" exist in the massive voids of intergalactic space, rendering them, once again, largely useless for space travel for Type I and II civilizations.
No known scientists have never observed the formation of a natural wormhole in the modern universe, so it is believed that all extant naturally-occurring wormholes were formed from emergent asymmetry in the natural energy density of the primordial universe at the instant of its formation. The marginal amount of exotic matter in the universe as a whole means that very few wormholes exist in nature compared to other naturally-occurring bodies like stars, black holes, and nebulae. Exotic matter can by synthesized, but the conditions necessary to manufacture a wormhole are very specific and any significant error will result in the collapse of the envelope into a black hole or an equivalently energetic violent event. Despite this, artificial wormholes are widely used by spacefaring civilizations once a mastery of fundamental particles and exotic energy functions are achieved.
Structure EditWormholes manifest as spherical envelopes which can be entered from any direction in space. Depending on the type of wormhole, or the presence of any complicating topological defects, the "throat" of the wormhole may take any length of time to transit from the perspective of the transiting particle before exiting from the other "mouth" or "terminus". The throat contains the center of negative mass, meaning the throat of a wormhole is strongly effected by other gravitational or gravity-mimicking influences in higher dimensions. The more dimensions through which the wormhole transits and with which it interacts independently, the greater the effect gravity in these dimensions has on its neck. This lengthens the absolute distance between the termini of the wormhole without effecting the termini themselves or the overall topology of the structure.
There are three types of wormholes, defined by the number of dimensions transformed between the two termini.
- Simple wormholes connect points that could be transited by any particle in normal space. These are the only type of wormholes that non-godlike civilizations can effectively manufacture (i.e. very high type II and most type III civilizations). (~95% of natural wormholes)
- Temporal wormholes connect points at different points in time relative to the temporal displacement between their orbital bodies. (~4.9% of natural wormholes)
- Holographic wormholes connect points on divergent timelines to one another that would otherwise be totally inaccessible to any observer. More details below. (~0.1% of natural wormholes)
Quantum Branching Edit
Quantum branching is a fundamental characteristic of the universe which underlies all causal relationships between particles and systems. The inherent unpredictability of these quantum events is reflective of an underlying universal wave function which is a reflection of all possible causal relationships throughout the entire breadth of spacetime. This results in a branching of timelines from one another at "nodes" which represent different quantum states which act as initial conditions for later events, which are themselves nodes for future branches. The sum of any number of branches derived from any given node is called a "probability space", which contains all possible quantum states of the whole universe resulting from the initial conditions of that node. These branches are inaccessible from one another, after the diverging instance, by any three-dimensional travelers.
Four-dimensional travel (or time travel) also influences the overall universal wave function by introducing additional mass to the branch as a whole, creating a whole series of new quantum states which each form nodes for new branches. However, once a new branch forms, any observer entangled with the nodal quantum state may only observe the branch derived from the events derived from their own initial state. If an observer travels back in time once again to the same instance of a previous trip, the second trip will cause a completely different causal node, and thus the timeline on which the observer initially found himself after traveling back in time is now just as inaccessible to the observer as his original timeline.
Thus, wormhole necks weaved through higher dimensions are the only means to influence any parallel timelines with post-nodal causal events. Any such wormhole is generally called a "holographic wormhole".
Wormhole Metrics EditWormholes are measured and classified by several metrics, in addition to the number of dimensions in transits. Wormholes nomenclature and the identification of individual wormholes is based on the classification according to these metrics.
The size of a wormhole terminus is dictated by the distribution of negative mass along the length of the wormhole. If its center of negative mass is evenly displaced between the two termini, the termini will be more compact. If the center of negative mass is distributed bimodally at two foci spaced evenly from the two termini, then the termini will be very massive. There are also asymmetrically distributed centers of negative mass which can result in "funnel-necked wormholes" which have termini of two different sizes and apparent masses. Wormholes are classed by a double-digit number including the diameters of their termini. An asterisk ("*") is appended to the end of the terminus which is larger in the case that the termini of different size are not sufficiently different to warrant a separate classification.
- Miniscule: <1cm in diameter (1)
- Ordinary: Between 1cm and 1km in diameter (2)
- Stellar: >1km in diameter (3)
The density of energy across the neck of the wormhole can result in a higher intensity and amplitude of the wave function resonances of the space inside the wormhole itself. If this intensity reaches a certain point, the tidal forces within the wormhole can tear a ship to pieces. Bridge intensity is always a gradient that increases with positive displacement from the neck's axis of rotation.
- Normal: today forces less than or equal to 5,000 Newtons (O)
- Moderate: tidal forces between 5,000 and 25,000 Newtons (I)
- Severe: tidal forces between 25,000 and 100,000 Newtons (V)
- Desegregative: tidal forces in excess of 100,000 Newtons (X)
The vast majority (up to 80%) of all wormholes are contained within gravity wells. These are usually black holes and neutron stars, but a moderate number also exist in regular galactic orbits accompanying stars and nebulae. The remainder are located in the expansive voids between galaxies and galaxy clusters.
- Intergalactic Void: not gravitationally bound to any coherent galactic or intergalactic structure that is reasonably measurable at astronomical distances (no indicator)
- Galactic Orbit: gravitationally bound to a supermassive black hole at any distance (G)
- Stellar Orbit: gravitationally bound to a star (S) or black hole (S')
There are eight types of known displacement metrics for wormholes. One is non-transitable, one is simple, two are temporal, and the other four are holographic.
- Closed: extremely curved space enveloped by itself, these are generally indistinct from black holes and other extremely dense objects when observed at a distance (A)
- Transitive: connects two distant points in space (B)
- Confined Temporal: connects the same point in space at two different times relative to an inertial reference frame (C)
- Temporal: connects two different points in space and at two different times, or the same point in a different reference frame (D)
- Confined Probabilistic: connects the same point in space and time relative to a mutual frame of reference on two different timelines (E)
- Probabilistic: connects two different points in space at the same time on different timelines (F)
- Complex Refracted: connects the same point in space at two different points in time on two different timelines (G)
- Phase shifted: connects two different points in space and time on two different timelines with no common frames of reference in the first seven dimensions (a.k.a. "island wormholes") (H)
Using these metrics, a wormhole with termini of 40m and 200m in diameter, tidal forces of 10,000 Newtons in orbit around a black hole that transits between two points in space and time would be identified as such: DIS'-22*
Vacuity Pockets Edit
Extreme curvature along the branes of wormholes through multiple higher dimensions can result in the necks of wormholes intersecting and forming non-terminal envelopes. These envelopes, formed when two or more wormhole necks wrap around each other and warps the emergent topology of lower dimensions. This phenomenon is called a manifold and the extreme curvature this causes on lower dimensions effectively forms discrete regions of space enclosed by the wormhole necks that appear to be black holes to an outside observer. Their curvature imitating the effect of an event horizon in lower dimensions, with all the same properties as an ordinary spatial black hole.The space inside the envelope is called a "vacuity pocket" and can only be accessed by the intersection of wormholes in even more complex hyperspace manifolds, such as those through six, seven, or even (hypothetically) eight-plus dimensions. They effectively form isolated regions of spacetime bound by extreme positive curvature that can potentially contain individual planets, solar systems, and even entire star clusters. Vacuity pockets are usually formed in large numbers by the collisions of galaxies, whose gravity wells cause the throats of their accompanying wormholes to become highly entangled, isolating a very small percentage of their stars inside vacuity pockets. These are only accessible through wormholes that transform in a greater number of dimensions than those enveloping the vacuity pocket (also called "pin-cushions")
In very rare circumstances, wormhole necks can become disentangled by the influence of particularly large gravity wells accompanying complementary magnetic fields. The strength of gravity, or a gravity-like force, combined with the significantly more powerful electromagnetic or nuclear forces acting at smaller scales, can affect the throat entanglement on microscopic scales in profound ways. This usually results in very violent gravitational events on a large scale because the relative location of the vacuities to one another and to their host bodies will result in collisions with objects in the gravitational neighborhood of their new relative location. Doubly so because only very large gravity wells, which can include other vacuity pockets, are powerful enough to disentangle their manifolds.
Theoretical Wormholes Edit
If higher dimensions that the seven observed in the natural manifold landscape exist, then it must necessarily be possible for such wormholes to exist that may transit them. However, no such wormholes have been observed in nature. It is possible that, in substantially higher dimensions, other forces overwhelm that of gravity, making natural formation impossible. It may also be because the complexity of the manifolds necessary to thread these "hyper-branes" into wormholes cannot be achieved in an environment as extreme as the early universe and that the speed of inflation was too great to overcome this limit. It is uncertain if there is even enough energy accessible to a Type II or III civilization to achieve the requisite exotic energy density to form such peculiar wormholes. Although they remain hypothetical, here are some postulated types of wormholes in higher dimensions:
- Hyperspace Wormholes: These wormholes would essentially violate causality as it is understood in the modern universe. The termini of a hyperspace wormhole would bridge the gaps between so-called "bubble universes" which arise out of differing initial conditions of formation. On either side of such bodies, fundamental constants like the speed of light and the mass of protons may be different. It may be that the differing wave functions of the two bubble universes are too disruptive to be bridged by a wormhole throat. If this is true, any such wormhole in nature would immediately collapse into a black hole.
- Emergent Wormholes: These wormholes would occur at the manifolding of numerous holographic wormholes and may spawn entirely coherent vacuity pockets with their own laws of physics. These may already exist and simply be inaccessible to organic life. If so, they would probably be subject to similar inflationary tendencies as the observable universe and would thus elongate the throats of any proximate wormhole bridges. Wormholes that cross from our universe to these pocket universes would be extremely rare and may only come about if the positive curvature of the pocket universe is sufficient to mimic a negative energy density across a length of the brane.
- Valved Wormholes: These wormholes are theorized to be what exists at the singularities of black holes. If true, then the formation of every new black hole would mean the formation of an entirely new universe. This would only be accessible through the singularity and once crossed, no information would be able to return. The model of cosmological evolution supports this, and the wormholes may be compatible with the theorized hyperspace wormholes.
- Asymptotic Wormholes: These wormholes would bridge the gap between two fundamentally different realities which obey the same physics but in an inverse way. Such vacuities would be comprised primarily of antimatter and the evolution of time would be reversed from our perspective.
- Anyone can use this for any fiction. I just created it as a quick reference for all the shorthand words/phrases I use in relation to the subject.